As of August 2016, 18 deployments have been carried out, with 15 O-Buoys, extending from 2009 through 2016 and counting.
We will have high data density in Spring time, which is the key season for atmospheric halogen observations, and in Fall. This makes the O-Buoy project data collection an incredible success and gives us a highly detailed (both temporal and spatial resolution, Fig. 1A, B) data set for testing our understanding of atmospheric halogen chemistry and its relationship to sea ice / snowpack / meteorology. This was our last deployment and observational period, as deployments straddled our 5th year and this 6th, no-cost-extension year (2015-2016) when the last two field campaigns happened in Fall 2015 (NABOS in September and Beaufort Gyre in October 2015).
OB-9 was deployed in the East Siberian Sea in late summer 2013; since then it drifted south past the North Pole, towards Greenland and is now exiting the Arctic Ocean via Fram Strait, east of Greenland, among many ice floes large and small as well as open water. You can see a movie loop of its voyage here as well as daily pictures and data here.
Carlton Rauschenberg is on his way to the E. Siberian Sea with 2 O-Buoys to deploy, as part of the 2015 NABOS expedition. You can follow the ship and its activities here.
OB-6 was deployed at North Pole Environmental Observatory in April 2012; it sampled through that summer and fall, eventually disappearing in the ice field that leaves through Fram Strait in late October – as can be seen in its movie at http://obuoy.datatransport.org/monitor#buoy6/movie.
It was picked up off the Faroe Islands 2.5 years later, brought to shore, dismantled, and the main components returned to CRREL to be examined. As expected, although all internal components were still there and intact, all were corroded by seawater that most likely got in through the openings left by the sensors sheared from the mast.
Two O-Buoys will be deployed this 2015 fall in the Beaufort Gyre from the CCGS Louis St. Laurent by Wes Halfacre (Purdue U.) and two more in the E. Siberian Sea from the I/B Kapitan Dranitsyn or Akademik Fedorov by Carlton Rauschenberg (Bigelow Laboratory). Three of the buoys are new ones, while the fourth one was previously deployed as OB-8 in the Beaufort; now ready to go again. These will be the last deployments with the currently funded project. The data should stream for 1-2 years. As always, O-Buoy data and images can be found in the ACADIS data portal.
Stay tuned for real time updates this coming fall!
Two O-Buoys (11 & 12) were deployed this past September in the Beaufort Gyre. OB-12 has our new seawater module, in addition to the atmospheric chemistry and meteorology sensors. The new module will sample seawater pCO2, temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, chlorophyll fluorescence, and turbidity just below the sea ice. This was Purdue U. graduate student Wes Halfacre second deployment, as he was out in 2012.
Two O-Buoy monitoring systems are scheduled to be deployed this summer. O-Buoy 9 will be deployed during the NABOS (Nansen and Amundsen Basin Observational
System) Expedition in the East Siberian Sea. O-Buoy 10 will be deployed during the JOIS Expedition in the Beaufort Sea.
The NABOS deployment (O-Buoy 9) will take place on the Russian research icebreaker Akademik Fyodorov for a 34 day cruise departing from and returning to Kirkenes Norway. O-Buoy 10 will be deployed, once again, from the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Louis S. St-Laurent on a 32 day cruise in the Beaufort Sea.
In addition to these two new systems that are being deployed this summer, O-Buoys 7 and 8 are still operating in the Beaufort Sea and providing real time summer data. Click here to see live movies and data of these systems.
“O-buoy 4” started measuring the concentrations of ozone, carbon dioxide and bromine monoxide in the air over the ice of the Arctic Ocean at latitude 88.15°N and longitude 157.49°W on September 5, 2011. The deployment of the instrumentation package took place during a survey mission of the Canadian Extended Continental Shelf Mapping Program conducted by the CCGS Louis S. St-Laurent icebreaker. The buoy is a component of join research project between six research groups in USA and Environment Canada. O-buoy 4 drifted with the ice by taking part into a wind driven ice circulation known as Transpolar Drift Stream, where ice moves from the Siberian coast of Russia across the Arctic and exits predominantly into the North Atlantic through the Fram Strait on the east coast of Greenland. It was successfully retrieved from the ice of the Fram Strait on August 25th, 2012. The recovery mission was organized by Dr. Edmond Hansen from the Norwegian Polar Institute. It was implemented with the help of the Norwegian Polar Institute and the crew of the Norwegian RV Lance. O-buoy 4 collected data on air composition, meteorological variables, the ice drift and the ice conditions through 355 days long journey across the High Arctic. Daily updated information was posted on open to the public web site: http://obuoy.datatransport.org/monitor through this measurement period. The instrumentation package gathered the longest O-buoy network based data set with all analytical sensors in proper operational mode. It recorded ozone and carbon dioxide concentrations over the ice of the Arctic Ocean throughout all four seasons providing details on their current, region specific and seasonal value and variability. It recorded carbon dioxide variations in the concentrations trough the ocean freezing and the ice melt periods. It was the first O-buoy that recorded data in the High Arctic as close to the North Pole as 89.515°N. O-buoy 4 captured the whole spring time ozone depletion season of 2012 around the North Pole after the French schooner TARA in 2007 with the first parallel measurements of bromine monoxide abundance and a complete suite of the surrounding environmental parameters. O-buoy 4 was the first O-buoy to start reporting data for the Marine Weather forecasting and to be used for wind direction and wind speed validation of the forecast models.
Everything went like clockwork as O-Buoy 7 and O-Buoy 8 were deployed in the Beaufort Sea this summer. The JOIS 2012 expedition once again took place on board the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Louis S. St-Laurnet. The expedition departed from Kugluktuk on August 2 and again returned to Kugluktuk on September 8. O-Buoy 7 was deployed on September 26 and O-Buoy 8 was deployed on September 27.
O-Buoy 6 was successfully deployed at the North Pole in early April 2012. Chris Williams (CRREL) and Steve Walsh (UAF) deployed O-Buoy 6 at the North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO). Since 2000, a team of international scientists have been deploying unmanned research instruments at NPEO to collect valuable information about the changing arctic. This is the first year that an O-Buoy has been deployed at NPEO. Hopefully it will not be the last. If you follow the link above to the NPEO webpage you can see O-Buoy 6 in the distance of webcam 2.